Extra Class App

Question 5:

Find out through internet and popular science articles whether animals other than man have self-consciousness.


There are many animals other than humans, which have self consciousness. An example of an animal being self conscious is dolphins. They are highly intelligent. They have a sense of self and they also recognize others among themselves and others. They communicate with each other by whistles, tail-slapping, and other body movements. Not only dolphins, there are certain other animals such as crow, parrot, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, etc., which exhibit self-consciousness.

Question 6:

List 10 modern-day animals and using the internet resources link it to a corresponding ancient fossil. Name both.


The modern day animals and their ancient fossils are listed in the following table.



1. Man Ramapithecus
2. Horse Eohippus
3. Dog Leptocyon
4. Camel Protylopus
5. Elephant Moerithers
6. Whale Protocetus
7. Fish Arandaspis
8. Tetrapods Icthyostega
9. Bat Archaeonycteris
10. Giraffe Palaeotragus

Question 7:

Practise drawing various animals and plants.


Ask your teachers and parents to suggest the names of plants and animals and practice drawing them. You can also take help from your book to find the names of plants and animals.

Question 8:

Describe one example of adaptive radiation.


Adaptive radiation is an evolutionary process that produces new species from a single, rapidly diversifying lineage. This process occurs due to natural selection. An example of adaptive radiation is Darwin finches, found in Galapagos Island. A large variety of finches is present in Galapagos Island that arose from a single species, which reached this land accidentally. As a result, many new species have evolved, diverged, and adapted to occupy new habitats. These finches have developed different eating habits and different types of beaks to suit their feeding habits. The insectivorous, blood sucking, and other species of finches with varied dietary habits have evolved from a single seed eating finch ancestor.

Question 9:

Can we call human evolution as adaptive radiation?


No, human evolution cannot be called adaptive radiation. This is because adaptive radiation is an evolutionary process that produces new species from a single, rapidly diversifying lineage, which is not the case with human evolution. Human evolution is a gradual process that took place slowly in time. It represents an example of anagenesis.

Question 10:

Using various resources such as your school library or the internet and discussions with your teacher, trace the evolutionary stages of any one animal say horse.


The evolution of horse started with Eohippus during Eocene period. It involved the following evolutionary stages.

(i) Gradual increase in body size

(ii) Elongation of head and neck region

(iii) Increase in the length of limbs and feet

(iv) Gradual reduction of lateral digits

(v) Enlargement of third functional toe

(vi) Strengthening of the back

(vii) Development of brain and sensory organs

(viii) Increase in the complexity of teeth for feeding on grass

The evolution of horse is represented as

(i) Eohippus

It had a short head and neck. It had four functional toes and a splint of 1 and 5 on each hind limb and a splint of 1 and 3 in each forelimb. The molars were short crowned that were adapted for grinding the plant diet.

(ii) Mesohippus

It was slightly taller than Eohippus. It had three toes in each foot.

(iii) Merychippus

It had the size of approximately 100 cm. Although it still had three toes in each foot, but it could run on one toe. The side toe did not touch the ground. The molars were adapted for chewing the grass.

(iv) Pliohippus

It resembled the modern horse and was around 108 cm tall. It had a single functional toe with splint of 2nd and 4th in each limb.

(v) Equus

Pliohippus gave rise to Equus or the modern horse with one toe in each foot. They have incisors for cutting grass and molars for grinding food.